Exception Handling in java programming.

Exception Handling in Java
The exception handling in java is one of the powerful mechanism to handle the runtime errors so that normal flow of the application can be maintained.

What is exception
Dictionary Meaning: Exception is an abnormal condition.
In java, exception is an event that disrupts the normal flow of the program. It is an object which is thrown at runtime.
Hierarchy of Java Exception classes

Types of Exception
There are mainly two types of exceptions: checked and unchecked where error is considered as unchecked exception. The sun microsystem says there are three types of exceptions:
1.    Checked Exception
2.    Unchecked Exception
3.    Error
1) Checked Exception
The classes that extend Throwable class except RuntimeException and Error are known as checked exceptions e.g.IOException, SQLException etc. Checked exceptions are checked at compile-time.
2) Unchecked Exception
The classes that extend RuntimeException are known as unchecked exceptions e.g. ArithmeticException, NullPointerException, ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException etc. Unchecked exceptions are not checked at compile-time rather they are checked at runtime.
3) Error
Error is irrecoverable e.g. OutOfMemoryError, VirtualMachineError, AssertionError etc.
Java Exception Handling Keywords
There are 5 keywords used in java exception handling.
1.    try
2.    catch
3.    finally
4.    throw
5.    throws
The JVM firstly checks whether the exception is handled or not. If exception is not handled, JVM provides a default exception handler that performs the following tasks:
·         Prints out exception description.
·         Prints the stack trace (Hierarchy of methods where the exception occurred).
·         Causes the program to terminate.
But if exception is handled by the application programmer, normal flow of the application is maintained i.e. rest of the code is executed.

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