Operators in java
operator in java is a symbol that is used to perform operations. Java provides a rich set of operators to manipulate variables. We can divide all the Java operators into the following groups:
·
Arithmetic Operators
·
Relational Operators
·
Bitwise Operators
·
Logical Operators
·
Assignment Operators
· Misc Operators
· Misc Operators
The Arithmetic Operators:
Arithmetic
operators are used in mathematical expressions in the same way that they are
used in algebra. The following table lists the arithmetic operators:Assume
integer variable A holds 10 and variable B holds 20, then:
SR.NO

Operator
and Example

1

+
( Addition )
Adds
values on either side of the operator
Example: A +
B will give 30

2

 ( Subtraction )
Subtracts
right hand operand from left hand operand
Example: A 
B will give 10

3

* ( Multiplication )
Multiplies
values on either side of the operator
Example: A *
B will give 200

4

/ (Division)
Divides
left hand operand by right hand operand
Example: B /
A will give 2

5

% (Modulus)
Divides
left hand operand by right hand operand and returns remainder
Example: B %
A will give 0

6

++ (Increment)
Increases
the value of operand by 1
Example: B++ gives 21

7

 ( Decrement )
Decreases
the value of operand by 1
Example: B gives 19

The Relational Operators:
There are following relational operators supported by
Java language
Assume variable A holds 10 and variable B holds 20, then:
SR.NO

Operator
and Description

1

==
(equal to)
Checks
if the values of two operands are equal or not, if yes then condition becomes
true.
Example: (A == B) is not true.

2

!= (not equal to)
Checks
if the values of two operands are equal or not, if values are not equal then
condition becomes true.
Example: (A !=
B) is true.

3

> (greater than)
Checks
if the value of left operand is greater than the value of right operand, if
yes then condition becomes true.
Example: (A > B) is not
true.

4

< (less than)
Checks
if the value of left operand is less than the value of right operand, if yes
then condition becomes true.
Example: (A < B) is true.

5

>= (greater than or equal to)
Checks
if the value of left operand is greater than or equal to the value of right
operand, if yes then condition becomes true.
Example (A >= B) is not
true.

6

<= (less than or equal to)
Checks
if the value of left operand is less than or equal to the value of right
operand, if yes then condition becomes true.
example(A <= B) is true.

The Bitwise Operators:
Java defines several bitwise operators, which can be
applied to the integer types, long, int, short, char,
and byte.
and byte.
Bitwise operator works on bits and performs bitbybit
operation. Assume if a = 60; and b = 13; now in
binary format they will be as follows:
binary format they will be as follows:
a = 0011 1100
b = 0000 1101

a&b = 0000 1100
ab = 0011 1101
a^b = 0011 0001
~a = 1100 0011
The following table lists the bitwise operators:
Assume integer variable A holds 60 and variable B holds
13 then:
SR.NO

Operator
and Description

1

&
(bitwise and)
Binary
AND Operator copies a bit to the result if it exists in both operands.
Example: (A & B) will give
12 which is 0000 1100

2

 (bitwise or)
Binary
OR Operator copies a bit if it exists in either operand.
Example: (A  B) will give 61
which is 0011 1101

3

^ (bitwise XOR)
Binary
XOR Operator copies the bit if it is set in one operand but not both.
Example: (A ^ B) will give 49
which is 0011 0001

4

~ (bitwise compliment)
Binary
Ones Complement Operator is unary and has the effect of 'flipping' bits.
Example: (~A ) will give 61
which is 1100 0011 in 2's complement form due to a signed binary number.

5

<< (left shift)
Binary
Left Shift Operator. The left operands value is moved left by the number of
bits specified by the right operand
Example: A << 2 will give
240 which is 1111 0000

6

>> (right shift)
Binary
Right Shift Operator. The left operands value is moved right by the number of
bits specified by the right operand.
Example: A >> 2 will give
15 which is 1111

7

>>> (zero fill right shift)
Shift
right zero fill operator. The left operands value is moved right by the
number of bits specified by the right operand and shifted values are filled
up with zeros.
Example: A >>>2 will
give 15 which is 0000 1111

The Logical Operators:
The following table lists the logical operators:
Assume Boolean variables A holds true and variable B
holds false, then:
Operator

Description

1

&&
(logical and)
Called
Logical AND operator. If both the operands are nonzero, then the condition
becomes true.
It
is also known as short circuit because if the 1^{st} expression is
false, the 2^{nd} expression will not be evaluated.
Example (A && B) is
false.

2

 (logical or)
Called
Logical OR Operator. If any of the two operands are nonzero, then the
condition becomes true.
Example (A  B) is true.

3

! (logical not)
Called
Logical NOT Operator. Use to reverses the logical state of its operand. If a
condition is true then Logical NOT operator will make false.
Example !(A && B) is
true.

The Assignment Operators:
There are following assignment operators supported by
Java language:
SR.NO

Operator
and Description

1

=
Simple
assignment operator, Assigns values from right side operands to left side
operand.
Example: C = A + B will assign
value of A + B into C

2

+=
Add
AND assignment operator, It adds right operand to the left operand and assign
the result to left operand.
Example: C += A is equivalent
to C = C + A

3

=
Subtract
AND assignment operator, It subtracts right operand from the left operand and
assign the result to left operand.
Example:C = A is equivalent to
C = C – A

4

*=
Multiply
AND assignment operator, It multiplies right operand with the left operand
and assign the result to left operand.
Example: C *= A is equivalent
to C = C * A

5

/=
Divide
AND assignment operator, It divides left operand with the right operand and
assign the result to left operand
ExampleC /= A is equivalent to
C = C / A

6

%=
Modulus
AND assignment operator, It takes modulus using two operands and assign the
result to left operand.
Example: C %= A is equivalent
to C = C % A

7

<<=
Left
shift AND assignment operator.
Example C <<= 2 is same
as C = C << 2

8

>>=
Right
shift AND assignment operator
Example C >>= 2 is same
as C = C >> 2

9

&=
Bitwise
AND assignment operator.
Example: C &= 2 is same as
C = C & 2

10

^=
bitwise
exclusive OR and assignment operator.
Example: C ^= 2 is same as C =
C ^ 2

11

=
bitwise
inclusive OR and assignment operator.
Example: C = 2 is same as C =
C  2

Miscellaneous Operators
There are few other operators supported by Java Language.
Conditional Operator ( ? : )
Conditional operator is also known as the ternary
operator. This operator consists of three operands and is used to evaluate
Boolean expressions. The goal of the operator is to decide which value should
be assigned to the variable. The operator is written as:
variable x = (expression) ? value if true : value if
false
Ex.
b = (a == 1) ? 20: 30;
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